Structural Characterization of Amorphous Photosynthetic Complexes

Structural Characterization of Amorphous Photosynthetic Complexes

Structural Characterization of Amorphous Photosynthetic Complexes

In order to provide our customers with comprehensive biophysical analysis services, CD BioSciences is committed to developing X-ray scattering techniques for structural characterization of biomolecules. We apply these techniques to help our clients resolve the structure and dynamics in photosynthesis. With years of experience and knowledge, we are confident to provide high-quality technical support to accelerate our clients' research projects.


One of the challenges in photosynthesis research lies in linking the structure and dynamics of photosynthetic complexes to function. Scientists have now successfully determined the three-dimensional structure of photosynthetic protein complexes using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques and X-ray crystallography, providing an experimental basis for addressing this challenge. Although crystallographic techniques provide the most accurate and detailed information about the molecular structure, the measurements are limited to a specific crystalline state. This approach limits the measurements of the amplitude, range, and time scales of molecular motions and the study of how these conformational landscapes are coupled to biological functions.

NMR methods overcome the limitations of crystallography by resolving molecular structures in solids and liquids, but these methods are focusing on a set of short-range distance constraints and thus cannot directly determine the complete molecular structure. Currently, the development of synchrotron X-ray scattering offers new opportunities for direct characterization of photosynthetic protein conformations in non-crystalline media based on crystallographic, NMR, and molecular dynamics databases.

Schematic diagram of the X-ray scattering experiment.Fig.1 Schematic diagram of the X-ray scattering experiment. (Tiede, 2009)

Our Services

We create opportunities for our customers to understand the structure and structural dynamics of supramolecular assemblies in solution through combining a range of X-ray scattering measurement techniques with coordinate-based modeling approaches. We leverage our specialized biophysical analysis platform to help our clients resolve the conformational landscape of amorphous photosynthetic complexes. The services we offer include, but are not limited to:

  • Experimental characterization of protein conformation and dynamics in solution.
  • Analyzing the intermediate structures of small molecules along ultrafast excited-state reaction coordinates.
  • Ultrafast fingerprinting of protein conformational intermediates along reaction coordinates.

Our Technical Support

  • Synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques
  • Wide-angle X-ray scattering techniques
  • Ultrafast X-ray scattering techniques

Advantages of Our Services

  • Experienced and creative professional team
  • Leading technology
  • Trustworthy scientific services
  • Comprehensive services at the most favorable price

CD BioSciences has the leading technology and a good reputation in the industry. We provide a variety of X-ray scattering technologies to help customers characterize the conformation of photosynthetic proteins in amorphous media. If you need our services, please contact us. We are happy to discuss the details with you and formulate strategies and adjustment methods according to your requirements.


  1. Tiede, D. M.; et al. X-ray scattering combined with coordinate-based analyses for applications in natural and artificial photosynthesis. Photosynthesis research. 2009, 102(2): 267-279.
For research use only, not intended for any clinical use.
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CD BioSciences is a biotechnology company focused on biophysical services. We are proficient in both chemistry and biophysics, and have a comprehensive biophysical platform containing a wide range of advanced technologies.

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