Multi-angle Light Scattering (MALS)

Multi-angle Light Scattering (MALS)


In recent years, the application of light scattering technology in the field of polymer analysis has developed rapidly. It can not only measure the weight average absolute molecular weight, molecular rotation radius, and second virial coefficient of macromolecules but also combine light scattering technology with gel permeation analysis technology. The molecular weight distribution can also be measured in combination. Multi-angle light scattering (MALS) is a technology for determining the absolute molecular weight of biomolecules. It has the characteristics of high accuracy, no need to use standard proteins, no dependence on elution retention time, as well as direct and accurate determination of protein absolute molecular weight. In addition to the determination of binding ratios of proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides, this technology can also be used to determine the empty shell rate of antibody-conjugated drugs and AAV.

multi-angle light scattering (MALS) technologyFigure 1. Schematic illustration of the RP-UPLC-MALS method. (Gentiluomo L, et al., 2019)

Working Principle

When light irradiates the electron cloud in a molecule, scattering occurs. The scattering angle is related to factors such as molecule size, molecular weight, and molecular conformation. The absolute molecular weight is determined by shining a laser beam onto molecules in solution and simultaneously measuring the change in scattered light intensity as a function of angle and concentration using multiple angles.


  • The principle of static light scattering is used to measure the absolute molecular weight of polymers more directly, simply, and accurately.
  • By simultaneously measuring the changes in scattered light intensity with angle and concentration at multiple angles, higher measurement accuracy can be achieved.
  • It is suitable for a wide range from low molecular weight to high molecular weight to meet the measurement needs of different polymers.

CD BioSciences has specialized technical support in the biophysical field with a commitment to providing multi-angle light scattering (MALS) services in the fields of materials, biomedicine, and chemistry.

Main Application

  • Drug Discovery

By measuring the change in scattered light after a drug molecule binds to a biomolecule, we can assess the binding ability, affinity, and dissociation constants of a drug, providing critical information for drug design and optimization.

  • Biomacromolecule Research

When macromolecules in the solution are irradiated by laser, the charges in the molecules vibrate under the influence of the electric field of the light, thus producing scattered light. We can obtain information on the molecule's molecular weight, concentration, and specific refractive index increment by measuring the intensity of the scattered light at different angles. Currently, we can offer MALS as an important tool for the study of biomolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides.

  • Chromatography Combined Technology

Our technology platform can combine MALS with techniques such as gel permeation chromatography (GPC) or size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to provide more comprehensive molecular information. This combined approach not only helps us to determine the absolute molecular weight of a macromolecule, but also to obtain detailed information on the molecule's radius of rotation, second virial coefficient, molecular weight distribution, shape of the molecule, branching rate, and aggregation state.

What Can We Offer?

CD BioSciences has configured a specialized biophysical technology platform dedicated to providing multi-angle light scattering (MALS) services to our clients. For more details, please feel free to contact us.


  1. Gentiluomo L, Schneider V, Roessner D, et al. (2019). Coupling multi-angle light scattering to reverse-phase ultra-high-pressure chromatography (RP-UPLC-MALS) for the characterization monoclonal antibodies[J]. Scientific Reports. 9(1): 14965.
For research use only, not intended for any clinical use.
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